Author Archives: Franco Beilsa

Different forms of language have always helped mankind to communicate; may it be a crude symbol written language, or a very sophisticated language like Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit. In the initial times, mimicry and acting, with some symbolic language and drawings on surfaces, were the only modes of communication. From these humble beginnings, mankind has accepted and consistently developed new means. The chronology is vast, and the printing press, periodicals, newsletters, radio, television, telephones, and the Internet are some of the essential stepping stones in the journey. Today, there are several media channels working together in tandem.

What is Media Convergence?

Convergence is the process where several media channels come together to exist and operate in synergy. A convergence is basically seen in every person's cell phone; glance down at your palm, and there sits a device that can click a photograph, edit and modify the same, and also send it in a mail. Some people like to define convergence simply by stating it to be a merger of mass media and communication outlets. In some cases, multi-utility of the same gadget or media is also attributed to be a convergence. With the advancement of time and technology, manufacturers of technology are engaged in a race to manufacture devices that have maximum number of media converged within them.

Media Convergence and Technology

Three media channels are currently the focal point of the media convergence journey: the print media that has started laying a certain emphasis on Internet-based outlets, the slowly depleting difference between the television and the computer, and the slowly blurring line between the computers and the cell phones. Some decades ahead, we might be walking with gadgets in our hands, that are faster and more intelligent than the super computers. They'll have better connectivity than the cell phones, and can be used as televisions and newspapers too. This explains the fact that technology is acting as a super-catalyst in the convergence race.

Media Convergence and Society

There are a considerable number of effects of convergence on society. Media convergence is something that impacts us all, and such has become the way of life, that society adapts and changes accordingly. First we started only with written letter, then we proceeded to the ones that were typed on a typewriter, followed by the Fax and email, to the point where we now send a video or voice messages. Now, the pinnacle of convergence would be where an illuminated graphical figure would pop out of our gadgets to deliver a mail, orally, or graphically.

It goes without saying that media convergence is a speedy process affecting our careers too. It is getting more and more competitive out there, as one needs to start learning the converged technology as soon as it appears. Not only this, but entire offices and distances in two places have shrunk. Papers are slowly disappearing from offices, and certain slow working tools such as pens and typewriters are also disappearing. An apt example is that of the people who are in media jobs, as convergence demands versatility in jobs of the media personnel too.

We usually spend a lot of time in front of the TV whether we realize it or not. Whenever we have spare time, it's a way to relax, to get informed, entertained, forgetting about the worries of our daily life, about problems we have at work or school. It's the most common way of spending the weekends comfortably at home. There is thus a tendency of people's turning into the so-called "couch potatoes", even if it's for a while.

Although TV has its good and informative side, there are many bad things that it can bring, especially for children and teenagers who are more vulnerable than grown-ups. The movies on TV can often be damaging for young people. They show other young people indulging in all kinds of vices and harmful behavior, who act as if going to church is un-cool, unpleasant, that Christians are generally brain-damaged or hypocrites. The characters in those movies often show very little respect towards anything, unfortunately, and they also often become teenagers' role models. They curse a lot and use a vulgar language in order to express all they are thinking, and often have dubious entourages.

Role Models - Imitation

A study conducted by child and family protection association shows that more and more young people and children under 10 years of age tend to imitate movies, cartoons and music stars' behavior in their need for a role model. If we take a random TV show, we notice that more than a third of it contains elements of vulgarity, violence, atheism or frequenting certain people and places that don't really have any good influence. Moreover, it is considered as cool and fashionable to have all sorts of vices. There have recently appeared a lot of such programs with all sorts of "fights" between good and evil, where the protagonists use magic to defeat their enemies, where violence is highly valued, where there are a lot of vulgar words and insults. And an innocent and naive child can learn that one should use magic as that magic makes you look superior, it helps you control the world, and so you can control anybody. Aren't these bad things to teach a child?


Violence is another bad thing promoted in television by means of all sorts of films including cartoons. Children and youngsters watching violent movies, cartoons or other TV shows learn that they can use violence to ask for something and are sure to get what they want whenever they want, which again, is obviously yet another lie. We can't get all we want anytime we want; many times there are other elements involved that we need to take into account.

By following the advice and imitating the characters in the world of showbiz, youngsters end up making mistakes that bring destruction, such as taking up vices together with the desire of getting deeper into them and not giving them up, so that they would not appear as "weird" in the eyes of their judging friends. Unfortunately, still going down that path, many young people commit abortions, killings or even suicide. Numerous young girls have troubles accepting their looks, their weight, still due to the influence of showbiz and mass-media. They have eating disorders, they get depressed.

When you come to think at the people in the countryside although they are usually considered redundant and old-fashioned, (definitely not cool), they do not have so many problems with depression, weight, and so on. They are used to physical labor, which also keeps the mind healthy and strong, and the spirit high. So TV has one of the most disastrous effects on human mind. The radiations emitted by the TV produce a hypnotic effect on the viewers, irascibility and anxiety.

However, we cannot say that television does not promote good things also. For instance, certain TV programs broadcast documentaries and reportages about people and places, about animals, and of course, religious programs. But unfortunately, most TV programs seem contaminated with a virus which has the power to reduce the viewer's general culture, turning him/her into a sort of puppet that can be easily controlled, without any opposition from his/her part. And apart from cartoons (or at least some of them), we cannot even choose a harmless TV program for us and our children.

With premium tickets for Broadway musicals being sold between USD 100-200 and more, getting hold of discounted tickets is always a welcome change. There are some very reliable online ticket resources that offer substantial discounts and an opportunity to make the Broadway experience more worthwhile for buyers. However, booking online is not the only way you can buy comparatively cheaper Broadway tickets. This Buzzle guide discusses how to get cheap Broadway tickets.

Where to Get Discounted Broadway Tickets

TKTS Booth
The TDF (Theater Development Fund) operates three TKTS centers in New York City, which are located in Times Square, South Street Seaport, and Downtown Brooklyn. Although the best, waiting in line at the TKTS booth in Times Square is also the lengthiest way to get cheap Broadway tickets. This is the one place where you're likely to find both travelers and New Yorkers waiting in line with equal anticipation. The downside of waiting at the TKTS boot is that, there is no guarantee that you will find the tickets to the show you wish to attend, which is why being more flexible about shows would work more in your favor. The center at Times Square Booth sells discounted tickets on day-of-performance basis. Avoid Window #1, as they sell tickets on full-price for all same-day shows that have no discounts to offer. For discounted tickets for matinée and same-day evening performances, head to the South Street Seaport Booth or the Downtown Brooklyn Booth.

Broadway Concierge & Ticket Center
The Broadway League Concierge and Ticket Center offers discounted tickets for same-day, premium, and advance shows. Those looking for a safe alternative to get tickets can call CTC's customer service to make inquiries, or visit their Broadway Concierge & Ticket center outlet in Times Square Visitor Center and Mini-Museum on 7th Avenue. Their staff is trained to provide general Broadway information to customers in six languages, and help them buy regular and premium Broadway and off-Broadway show tickets along with concierge service.

Audience Rewards
The Audience Reward program is America's first such program for arts and Broadway. Its main objective is to provide theatergoers with bonus points which can be availed to save money while buying tickets. This program also lets theatergoers earn free tickets, win Broadway merchandise, and upgrade seats.

Contact Theater Box Offices

Those looking to catch a specific show, should consider calling theater box offices a day in advance. The reason being, individual theater box offices sometimes keep rush tickets and lotteries, and have Standing Room Only (SRO) for students and theatergoers on a tight budget. Rush tickets are meant for hard-to-sell seats and often offer deep discounts, wherein the tickets are sold at as low as USD 20.

Authorized Broadway Ticket Vendor Websites

Playbill asks for a free membership with the Playbill Club, wherein theatergoers can order online for tickets, call their ticketing agents, or present a printout of their Club page at the theater box office to avail discounts on their ticket. These discounts can vary from 10-50 % on several Broadway and Off-Broadway shows.

In their 'Offers' category on their website, Broadway has options for 'Last Minute Ticket' wherein, customers can buy tickets for same-day or night shows. However, these deals are posted only in the morning at 10:00 a.m - 4:30 p.m everyday and may run out quickly. The next best alternative is to call their customer service providers for information on up-to-date deals.

BroadwayBox has been offering the best discounts for Broadway shows, plays, and musicals in New York City since 2001. This venture began in the aftermath of September 11 attacks, as a way to ease the hearts of the people of NYC. This website does not require users to sign in, and thus, makes the ticket buying experience extremely easy and hassle free.

TheaterMania was founded in 1999, and has since become one of the go-to online resources for Broadway tickets. They provide special offers and ticketing services to their subscribers. This website also offers great discounts that range from 20-71%! It is indeed very rare to find such deep discounts on Broadway tickets anywhere else on the web.

Non Broadway-specific Ticket Websites

Although not specific to Broadway, here is a list of some websites that offer Broadway tickets at substantial discounts.


With so many online resources to get the best deal on Broadway tickets, theatergoers such as you should find it easier to save on tickets. Make the best of their offers and book ahead in time, just to be on the safer side.

Summer is here, which means that people will be looking for lots of things to do to fill the long daylight hours and warm nights. It can be easy to get sucked into the trap of spending lots of money on summer entertainment, but you don't have to break the bank to have a lot of fun. There are plenty of free or inexpensive ways to keep you and your family entertained this summer.
Free Museums, Concerts, and Movies
Visiting museum
Check the local paper or the Internet for free stuff to do. If you live near a major city, chances are there are plenty of awesome activities the whole family can enjoy. Museums usually have free or reduced fare days that you can take advantage of. On these days, the museums are usually packed with people, but it can be a good excuse to get out of the house and learn. There are also a plethora of free concerts and movies in parks both inside and outside cities. Pack up your lawn chairs or a soft blanket, and get there early for the best seat in the house. You can even bring a picnic to these events, which can save money while being fun for the whole family or a romantic date night.
Visit the Library
Visit library
Libraries are the most underused resource for free entertainment during the summer. Libraries have so much more than books. They carry CDs and movies, too, and often have free or inexpensive summer programs - like story time - for the kids. Many libraries also have digital subscription programs where you can get e-books, music, or audio books for free and install them on your MP3 player or e-reader right from your home computer. All you need is a library card. Don't have one? Just bring a recent piece of mail to your local library and they'll sign you right up.
Backyard Games
Backyard game hobby
If there isn't a park near your house, try playing some games in the backyard. Playing catch is an all-time favorite for dads and sons, but you can also try some new games, as well. Bags tournaments are a great way for kids and adults to have fun and improve hand-eye coordination at backyard barbeques. You can also try your hand at bocce ball, croquet, or horseshoes if you have the equipment. Of course, you could always sit and dip your feet in the kiddie pool as you watch people playing, too.
Potluck Parties
Picnic in spring
Potluck parties are great ways to get friends and family together without breaking the bank. Asking everyone to bring a dish to pass will help you save money and ensure that everyone has something there that they like to eat. If you are having a lot of people, think about preparing a list of items you need and have people sign up to bring them so you don't get duplicates. Specifying what course people should provide can help, too.
Play at the Park
Playing football
Some good playtime at the local park can be great exercise for adults, children, and pets. Best of all, it's totally free to visit the park, and you might even make some new friends while you're there. If you can walk to the park, you get bonus points for fitness. Make sure you pack plenty of water, snacks, and sunscreen to keep playtime safe and fun.

For those rainy summer days, DIY projects and crafts are also one of the options that can keep you busy while you are stuck inside. Your local craft store most likely has lots of inexpensive ideas for projects that the whole family will love.

Media is known to be the most powerful means of communication. Print media, electronic media and the Internet are all the subsets of mass media. Newspapers, newsletters, magazines and brochure are included in print media, while the electronic media consists of the television, radio and other modes of communication. Internet is without doubt the fastest known way of communicating with millions of people across the globe. Effects of mass media can be positive as well as negative.

The best thing about the mass media is that it immediately provides us with the latest information about the things happening around us. It reports news from all the fields such as politics, sports, international relations, wars, natural calamities, meetings, entertainment, etc. Because of the keen efforts and dedication of the people working in the media and the entertainment sector, our knowledge remains fresh. With this gained knowledge, we become more smart and outgoing. Many times, we understand what is good and bad for us. For example, the anti-tobacco and anti-narcotic programs launched by the media, have benefited many people to date. The information conveyed about various diseases and their possible treatments has saved the lives of many of us. The contribution of mass media in the fields of arts, education, technology and health care is laudable. We also get the correct information about the various crimes and illegal activities happening in our surroundings quite easily. Media is a boon for youngsters in many ways. They get useful information related to their career and higher education mostly through the mass media.

Media plays a very important role in shaping the personality of people. It has been observed that citizens become more sensible and capable to shoulder their responsibility towards the nation and the society because of media. We get our role models by hearing about the appreciation of their great deeds from the media itself. Over the years, mass media has played an important role in making people understand the meaning of democracy. We also come to know about the strengths and weaknesses of the economy of our country, the population figures, the various problems faced by the nation, achievements of the nation in different sectors, through the prompt and precise reporting of different forms of media. Media plays an important role in building the sense of unity and pride among the people of the nation. In those countries where there are many castes, religions and languages spoken, media has even more tough responsibility of conveying the true news to the citizens. Media makes the citizens aware of their fundamental rights and their duties towards their families, state and the nation. Utility of the mass media in the areas of advertising and marketing is simply great.

Though the positive mass media effects are many, there are some cons associated with it as well. The news which is published without having bothered to check whether it is a fact or not, can create unnecessary confusion and extreme feelings among the common masses. There have been many instances of huge fights and controversies emerging, because of improper reporting. It becomes the duty of media to provide only relevant and precise information to the masses.

Hopefully, you will be satisfied with the above mentioned information. Over the years, the media has become an inseparable component of our daily lives and hence, it is its prime responsibility to keep the confidence of people alive by reporting only true details of any particular event.

There was a time when one could always rely on the various types of media for accurate information. But in recent times, the media has gained for itself a reputation, for sensationalizing certain events or news pieces, where emphasis is drawn on unnecessary details. The various forms of mass media are known to influence the minds of the audience to a large extent.

Does this mean the media controls the world at large? What about our reliability on journalists and organizations worldwide? Journalism is a powerful tool when it comes to influencing the minds of people, but are we ready to have them give us only half the truth, or none at all? Let's take a deeper look into the types and reasons of media bias.

Types of Media Bias

Religious Bias
This sort of bias has been witnessed by us innumerable times, where certain nations either highlight the prominent religion of the state or country, or speak ill of the religion that governs the same. While many countries would see this as illegal, others aren't respectful when it comes to how they portray religion to the audience.

Information Bias
Some media houses deliberately leave out information, that they see as unfit for the audience to get their hands on, often blurring the line between the good and bad side of ethics. Newspapers, television news channels, and the like, will snip information that is exceedingly explanatory (but important), choosing to go with what can be conveyed in a nutshell.

Corporate Bias
The media is always looking to please someone, and in this case, it may be a major corporation that they heavily rely on for funds or exposure to audiences, to gain popularity amongst the rest.

Sensational Bias
When certain media houses give an audience the impression, that bigger not-so-common events are rather common, they befuddle the minds of people into thinking that everyday accidents and events, don't hold any sort of importance. In other words, they highlight rare instances and make them sound like a big deal, when small (but significant) events are kept in obscurity.

Advertisement Bias
Like corporate bias, advertising conglomerates have to be kept pleased by media houses, since a large part of funding comes from them. The same goes with political parties who have a stronghold on the media, where the reins are in their grip, with zero freedom to exercise expression and honesty.

Gate-Keeping Bias
This is when a media house takes the decision to withhold a story from the people, deciding to release the information at a later date, or never at all. This sort of bias is quite common, where a debate of how to release (if they do, that is) the story is first decided, possibly clipped down to size, and finally produced to the unsuspecting audience.

Causes of Media Bias

Media bias can happen due to various reasons. It occurs when journalists (or people) connected with the reporting of a particular event, have a prejudiced opinion about certain things, which ultimately results in a distorted version of the story.
Sometimes, there are certain media that may show a political bias towards certain news events. This happens when the publication or channel is in favor of a particular political party or a candidate.
A journalist may also be biased towards a particular incident and may add his/her personal opinion to the news report. This kind of media bias is purely based on the journalist's own opinion which is not considered to be purely ethical, to begin with.
Certain stories are showcased in the media depending on what pleases corporate giants; money and popularity being the deciding factor.
Racial and religious bias can happen when the journalist or news reporter, gives a report in favor of a particular religion/race.
Public Relations firms know how to control media houses, influencing their decisions on what to release to the public. They have years of practiced research to back their beliefs, since public opinion (and reactions) are heavily studied beforehand by PR experts.

These are some points that highlight how media can influence the minds of the audiences at large. In a time, where competition is running high, it's no wonder how outside influences are bound to affect the presentation of news events.

A home theater is a high-end appliance which can provide a great deal of entertainment with its unique and exclusive features. It consists of a large screen with high capacity speakers, a DVD player, a video game system, a CD player, a VCR, and many such facilities. Many multinational companies have entered this lucrative business by providing maximum possible amenities.

After buying a home theater, you can do the installation work yourself if you have a complete knowledge of its technique. By doing so, you can save a lot of money which is charged by the professional installation service providers. Setting up a home theater might become easy with the help of the following tips.

Select the Components After a Research

You have a wide range of choices to select the components of your home theater. Conduct a research by personally visiting the showrooms and then decide what components you want. The best choices available for you are wide screen Plasma TV, CRT TV, televisions with the options of front and rear positions, and flat screen televisions. The other components of a home theater like the remotes of different kinds, the voice receivers, home theater speakers should also be selected carefully.

Choose a Good Room for Home Theater Installation

The first step in the installation of a home theater is selecting a proper and spacious room, which is fully furnished and good enough to have this expensive device in it. The absence of such a luxurious room can prove to be a major deterrent for you, as even if you purchase the best home theater from the market, it will not give you the desired effects. You can have plush interiors for the room like POP's, good flooring, wall decoration, and ceiling installed lights of different colors. The room being selected should have a good privacy and the number of doors should be a minimum.

If you are ready to spend more, you can have the soundproofing done, which will prevent external noises from entering the room. Design the interiors of your rectangular room by having attractive paintings on the walls and shelves to keep essential things, because these things make the room look good as well as help in blocking the outside noises, which can be quite irritating. Make sure that the room is not too dark or too light, and note that lack of light can put a lot of strain on your eyes if you plan to watch your television for a long time.

Installation Of The Home Theater

The concept of a home theater is to have both, audio and visual effects in your own house. So, you should place the flat screen in such a way that it should be immediately seen after entering the room. This flat screen, along with the speakers would be wall mounted. Two or three speakers should be kept in a line which would be exactly in front of the chairs or seats. You should place the rear speakers such that they do not face each other.

It is recommended that you have sufficient distance between the components and the wall so that repairing and daily operation of the home theater system becomes easy. Make all the connections right and have a demo to view the results. Take help from the employee of the showroom, who will help you in the task as per the guidelines of the company.

By now, you must have understood how to set up a home theater comfortably. Enjoy your great possession by watching your favorite movies with your friends and family.

The basement is an ideal place to construct home theaters. These underground rooms provide quiet surroundings and proper light-effects to watch movies. To convert a basement into a home theater a little remodeling or renovation is required.

A basement can be designed in many different ways and customized according to our needs for setting up a home theater. The color on the walls should be non-reflective and it should have neutral colors. The carpet should be a sound absorbing or sound deadening one. Some basements have windows which act as a source of light, therefore they need to be covered with blackout curtains. Walls may be decorated with the help of framed movie posters. These can be purchased from specialty stores.

Arrangement of Equipment and Accessories
The equipment needed for the installation of home theater system are the screen, surround speakers, necessary wiring, and other equipment. Specially designed cabinets are also available to fit in the equipment required for this system. Curtains can be put up in front of TV screens. The sofa concept is the best home theater seating option for viewing purposes. It is difficult to construct a stadium seating assembly for a basement room, thus a sofa turns out to be the most feasible option. For the construction of risers, the room dimensions should be appropriate and the ceiling should at least be 8-9 feet in height. The ceiling and walls should be covered with drywall.

Room Dimensions
To decide the dimensions of the home theater room, one should take into account the science of acoustics. The dimensions such as the length, breadth, and width should be such that their values are not equal or multiples of each other. It is necessary to reduce the effect of resonance, as they cause dips and peaks in the frequency of sound. Keeping the room well ventilated is important along with the designing and lighting part. The popcorn machine can add to the heat of the basement. Whole fans or a ceiling fan could be used to remove the excess heat from the basement.

Enhancements and Decorations
A kids area could also be built inside for spending leisure time with the kids, which could be decorated with the help of toys, story books, etc. Soft cushions should be used for sofas in this area. A coffee table in front of the seating place can add to the comfort of the viewer. It helps to enjoy snacks and tea/coffee while viewing the favorite movies. If possible, a snack zone could be created by placing a mini-fridge and a sink in a corner place. A nacho maker, popcorn machine, and many more accessories could be brought into the designing of the home theater.

As basements lie in the lowermost portion of the house, waterproofing it becomes important in order to prevent any water leakage.

The aforementioned designs provide a rough idea about the various tips that should be kept in mind while designing of a home theater. Customizing the home theater according to our needs by exploring our creativity is the best thing to do.

The word 'television' has its roots in the Latin and Greek languages. The word is derived from the Greek word 'tele', which translates as 'far sight' and the Latin word 'visio', which means 'sight'. The invention made it to commercial markets in the late 1930s. Today, television is the most popular form of audio-visual communication in homes and commercial set-ups. The mere mention of the word 'TV', brings to mind a medium that helps us to keep abreast with current affairs and entertainment. The television set is no more a single communications unit. It has evolved in design complexity to broadcast recorded material stored in video cassettes, DVDs, laser discs, and Blu-ray discs.

Television: An Account of its History

The history of television spans over regions and time zones, since the technology evolved at different times in different places. The communication system, as we know it today, is not the brainstorm of any 'one' particular inventor. It has taken the efforts of many engineers, over many decades, to progress along different overlapping designs, to employ commonly accepted mechanical and electronic principles. Even though the electromechanical television sets are now being abandoned in favor of the ultra-modern, completely electronic designs, the basic design rests on the 1873 discovery of selenium photo-conductivity. This discovery made by Willoughby Smith led to the Paul Gottlieb Nipkow invention of a scanning disk, in 1884. Thereafter, in 1926, when John Logie Baird demonstrated televised moving images, the technology was combined with the image dissector designed by Philo Farnsworth, in 1927, to give us the basic principles of the communication device we know today.

These basics were experimented upon in different countries, by different people. However, the earliest records were those maintained and publicized by Nipkow, a 20-year old German student. In 1884, he became the first to propose and patent an electromechanical television system. The discovery of selenium photo-conductivity and Nipkow's scanning disk technology were first combined to produce an electronic transmission in the early 20th century. Thereafter, still pictures composed of spaced dots were a regular feature. Development of the amplification tube technology is credited to Lee DeForest and Arthur Korn. Between 1907 and 1909, the first demonstration of instantaneous transmission by Georges Rignoux and A. Fournier, using the rotating mirror-drum and a 64 selenium matrix, added another chapter to the Information and Communication Revolution.

The first development of sound backed pictures came in 1911, when Boris Rosing and Vladimir Kozmich Zworykin used the mechanical mirror-drum scanner to transmit sound through a Braun or cathode ray tube. Thought the sensitivity was not enough, it was a modest beginning to a revolution in television history. John Logie Baird, the Scottish inventor who first televised moving images, demonstrated silhouette motion-images in 1925. In the same year, the team at AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories was successful in transmitting halftone still images, while the genius of Charles Francis Jenkins experimented with the lensed disk scanner technology, to produce images at the rate of 16 pictures per second. However, the modern definition of technology as 'live transmission of moving images with tonal variation', makes it imperative to credit Baird with the achievement. He gave the world the first demonstration of a working television system on 26th January, 1926. The vertically scanned images were a result of an application that derived functionality from a scanning disk and double spiral of lenses. Thus began our romance with a communication device, that continues to evolve in components and public service efficiency.

Television, the scientific invention that revolutionized the world of communication, has now become a debatable issue for its alleged role in influencing child behavior and psychology. Nowadays, children discover the world of television at a very tender age. According to some studies, children under the age of 6 years watch television, video or DVD, daily for 2 hours on an average. In many instances, television can be effective, especially the educational and wildlife programs to broaden your child's knowledge and understanding about the world around him/her. It can also introduce them to different cultures and communities of the world. However, presently its negative effects seem to outweigh the positive ones.

Can Television Negatively Influence Children?

✔ The early stage of life, especially the first 2 - 3 years, are crucial for the mental development of your child. This is the age in which children learn through playing, observing, interacting, and exploring new things.

✔ Therefore, these few years are very significant for the mental and physical development. So, a habit of excessive television watching can hamper their normal physical and social activities, like playing with friends, reading, and spending quality time with family.

✔ Many television programs depict excessive violence, which can induce a lot of behavioral changes in young children. As children can easily relate to what is shown on television, they are more likely to imitate such behavior. So, such programs may induce aggressive behavior and thoughts in children.

✔ It can also cause nightmares and sleep disorders in young children by stimulating a sense of fear and anxiety. Besides this, it may create a confusion in the young minds regarding what is good or bad. This is because parents may teach their children that violence and aggression is bad, while on the other hand, the television programs may show the 'good guys' or the heroes as the perpetrators of violence.

✔ In addition to these, violence, smoking, and drinking scenes are widely depicted on television programs and commercials, without explaining the adverse consequences. The continuous and repeated exposure to such programs makes them feel that these activities are normal and quite acceptable. Therefore, children who watch these scenes regularly are more likely to imitate and develop such unhealthy habits at an early age.

✔ Obesity is a common problem in the developed world, and television is one of the important factors responsible for the growing trend of obesity among children. Excessive television watching reduces physical activities of the children, and at the same time, increases the popularity of junk foods, like snacks, soft drinks, and potato chips among them through commercials. So, together they are the major contributory factors for obesity among children.

✔ The attractive advertisements or commercials also immensely influence children. Children do not understand that the main motive behind these commercials is to sell products, irrespective of their importance and necessity.

✔ The appealing advertisements lure them to a range of products, both necessary and unnecessary. Besides these, television can also lead to poor academic performances by discouraging the habit of reading. Many believe that television watching can be an important cause of attention deficit disorder among children.

Therefore, moderation is quite important to ensure that the television is used as a source of healthy entertainment and for enhancing knowledge. So, it is better to set a time limit for watching television. Children should be encouraged to participate in activities, like playing games and reading books. Before allowing them to watch television programs, the parents should take into account the program's reviews and television ratings. They should be encouraged to watch programs that reinforce family values. As parents are the role models for their children, it is equally important for them to limit their own television watching to set an example for them.